Currently, this is an era of industrial engineering in the apparel manufacturing sector. If you work in the industrial engineering (IE) department in garments manufacturing industry or wish to work, this writing would help you learn about interview questions and answers. Textile and IPE engineers generally work in the industrial engineering department in the Apparel industry. These interview questions are given in below collected from Top Garments companies of various positions & covered with an answer.
Basics of IE-Industrial Engineering You should Know
1. The capacity study, Time study, Method Study, Motion study and Work-study
2. Line Layout, Line balancing and operation bulletin
3. SMV, CM, Line and efficiency calculation
4. Production Target set
5. Making operation breakdown from sketch or Sample
6. Remove bottleneck from the production line
7. Follow up WIP
8. Thread consumption
9. Implementing Lean tools; Kannan, Kaizen, TPM, TQM, 5S, etc.
10. Recruitment, manage the skill assessment scheme for all production operators.
Interview questions for Industrial Engineering Job in Apparel industry
- What is SMV?
Answer: SMV defined as “Time taken by a standard worker to perform the task with pre-defined conditions”. Standard Worker is who, the potential worker who can give maximum output with the best quality & can improve productivity for a specific item & style.
SMV Formula = BASIC TIME + (BASIC TIME × ALLOWANCE)
SMV Calculation, For example, Suppose a standard operator takes 1 minute to complete an operation. Let put 15% allowance (Men, M/c & Time)
SMV=1+ (1×.15) Min
= (1+.15) Min
SMV is the sum of SMV for all M/c & Manual operations to complete an item.
- What is efficiency?
Answer: EFFICIENCY defined as ‘’The comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (Men, M/c, Material, etc.)’’.
EFFICIENCY = EARNED MINUTE/AVAILABLE MINUTE
EARNED MINUTE = PRODUCTION (PCs) × SMV
AVAILABLE MINUTE = MANPOWER (HELP+OPR) × WORKING TIME (MIN)
Efficiency is expressed as %, it is a ratio, not a number.
- What is production & productivity?
Answer: PODUCTION is the process or procedure where changes of input is tangible by one or more operations and transform into output (goods or services). The production adds value in an organization by utilizing resources (Men, Machines, and Materials). Production counts in number.
INPUT → OPERATION → OUTPUT
PRODUCTIVITY is measuring of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system, etc., in converting inputs into useful outputs. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production. It is concerned with the effective utilization of resources (input) to produce goods or services (output).
- What are work study, method study & time study?
Answer: Work-study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out. It is a direct means of raising productivity involving little or no expenses.
Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing cost. It is a systematic recording and critical examination of ways of doing things in order to make improvement.
Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the time of performing a certain specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain time necessary for an operator to carry out at a define rate of performance.
- What is work measurement? Write short note on most commonly used work management techniques?
Answer: Work measurement is a technique to measure the performance time of an operator to complete a unique task. By this means we can identify real working time that means value adding process completion time, loss time that means non value adding times during the complete cycle of completing an operation or a series of operation.
There are five widely used work measurement techniques. They are:
- Time study: It is a precise time recording technique & gives rating by determining performance level. In general, it is done with taking cycle time repetitively with stopwatch, after that finding average of those cycle time that means observed time. Finally multiplying it with observed rating gives basic time.
- Synthetic data analysis: It is the vast version of time study. In general, the procedure contains summation of basic time of every step to complete a product or operation. It is an idea to use mostly for product sewing cost measurement as well as doing operation bulletin using pre-determined data from previous study.
- Work sampling: It is a technical process to determine the time spent by an operator to complete a task in which various fragmented work categories are predefined to catch the real time spent on those. A large number of observations can be done over a period of time to make a complete data sheet. In other sense, it is the broad way of synthetic data analysis.
- Predetermined motion time study (PMTS): It is a work measurement technique with precision where basic time calculated using human motion. Human motion is classified in nature & condition at defined performance level. Method time measurement (MTM) is the most commonly used PMTS technique.
- Analytic estimation: It based on estimation from previous data bank as well as experience of real time. Most companies use analytic estimation after making a data bank by previous any kind of work measurement technique.
- What is CPM & CM?
Answer: CPM is cost per minute. It may be for a production line or a factory or an organization.
CPM (Cost per Minutes) = (Direct Labor Cost + Operational Cost) of the month/ Usage Minutes (Available Minutes) of the month
CM or COM is cost of making or making cost. In broad sense it is CMT (Cut, Make & Trim) cost for garments industry. Before finding CM, CPM must be calculated.
CM= (SMV × CPM)/ Expected Efficiency%
Suppose, any item SMV is 5.5, Expected efficiency = 62.5 %, CPM= $0.03
CM = (5.5 × .0264)/ .625
= ($0.264 ×12)/ Dzn
=$3.168 / Dzn
- What is rating? What are the factors affecting rating?
Answer: Rating is the effective measure of an operator to show his/her skill based on benchmark & pre-defined condition. There is commonly used standard rating scale. They are 0, 1-50, 51-75 & 76-100, but this though changing gradually. In recent, most companies have their own range based on their standard operator, their performance, basic time & work quality. 1 to 100 may be segregated in several ranges as per work standard.
RATING= (OBSERVED RATING × STANDARD RATING)/ STANDARD RATING
The common factors affecting rating are:
- Work measurement technique & accuracy
- Time duration to fix the rating
- Work quantity
- Work quality
- What are the objectives of work study & method study?
Answer: Objectives of work study are:
- Cost optimization
- Increase productivity
- Increase profitability
- Increase jobs security
- Standard work procedure
- Establish fair task for every one
Objectives of method study are:
- Improve layout of factory and office
- Better design of plant equipment and buildings
- Higher standard of safety and health
- To improve the flow of work
- To get the better quality
- Effective materials handling
- Proper utilization of resources
- To get maximum output
- To improve administration
- Waste reduction
- Describe the principles of motion economy.
Answer: There are three principles of motion economy. They are:
- Use of human body
- Arrangement of the work place
- Design of tools and equipment
Use of human body:
- The two hands should begin and complete their movement at the same time.
- The two hand should not be idle at the same time accept during the period of rest.
- Motion of the arm should be symmetrical and in opposite directions should be simultaneously.
- Ballistic (free swinging) movement is faster, easier and more accurate than restricted movement.
- a)“Rhythm” is essential for a sewing operator to the smooth and automatic performance of a repetitive operation. The work should be arranged to permit easy and natural rhythm whenever possible.
- b)Work should be arranged so that eye movements are confined to a comfortable area without the need for frequent changes of focus.
Arrangement of the work place:
- Definite and fixed stations/place or location should be provided for all tools and materials to permit habit formation.
- Tools and materials should be repositioned to reduce searching.
- Tools, material control should be located within the maximum working area and as near to the worker as possible.
- Tools, material control should be located within the maximum working area and as near to the worker as possible.
- A comfortable chair should be provided. It should be possible for the worker to put both knees under the bench.
- Adequate natural or artificial lighting should be provided.
Design of tools and equipment:
- The hand should be relieved of all work of holding the work place where this can be done by jig, fixture or foot operated device.
- Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible.
- Write is bottleneck & line balancing?
Answer: Bottleneck is a phenomenon by which the performance or capacity of an entire system is severely limited by a single component. In production and project management, a bottleneck is one process in a chain of processes, such that its limited capacity reduces the capacity of the whole chain. Bottleneck, which are holding up production operations, or lengthy operations, that consumes a great deal of time. Bottleneck may be any process, any machine or any operator.
Line balancing is a manufacturing engineering function in which whole collection of production line tasks are divided into equal portions. Well balanced lines avoid labor idleness and improve productivity. Sometimes imbalanced line causes bottleneck.
Line layout→Capacity study→Capacity graph→Find bottleneck→Method engineering→Line balancing
- What are 8W of garment manufacturing? Write down name & describe shortly.
Answer: Waste is any step or action in a process that is not required to complete a process or that is non-value added activity. 8W means eight wastages. They are:
- Motion: Excess motion increase garment manufacturing time. Like turning, bending, lifting, moving etc.
- Inventory: Inventory is a loss that reduces profit. Like stored parts, equipment, materials, documents etc.
- Transportation: Excess transportation increases garment manufacturing time. Like movement of people, materials, information etc.
- Waste: Waste is a loss which reduces profit. Like waste material, parts, equipment etc.
- Overproduction: It is one kind of inventory. Like producing or making more than requirement.
- Over processing: It increases garment manufacturing time & cost. Like beyond tolerance or grade or number etc. than required.
- Defect: It decrease garment quality as well as increase nonproductive time. Like rework, correction, scrap, incorrect data fixing etc.
- Skill: It is the root of loss, less efficiency or non-productive time. Like underutilized capacity, less or no trained worker etc.
- What is 6S? Shortly describe.
Answer: 6S is a systematic approach to workplace organization. It is an explanation of the lean manufacturing 5S method and how to use it to create a safer workplace (sometimes known as 6S or 5S + Safety).
- Sort (Seiri): Find out necessary & non-necessary stuff
- Set in order (Seiton): Set stuffs in top necessity to less necessity
- Shine (Seiso): Eliminate non-necessary stuffs
- Standardize (Seiketsu): Making a standard way or strategy
- Sustain (Shitsuke): Making previous steps sustainable
- Safety: Safe work environment & personal safety
- What is muda, mura & muri?
Answer: Muda is a Japanese word which means futility, uselessness, wastefulness; Muda is any constraint or impediment that causes waste to occur. There are two types of muda. Necessary non value adding & non value adding. For example, garments quality checking at end point, customer is not going to pay for it, but it is necessary to keep this section in production line to ensure product standard & parameter. These kinds of muda are sometimes hard to eliminate because they indirectly help value adding processes. Non value adding muda are waste, incur hidden cost & they are known as 7W or 8W and should be eliminated. This is a basic concept of Toyota Production System (TPS).
Mura is a Japanese word which means unevenness, irregularity, no uniformity, inequity. It can be eliminated through Just-In-Time (JIT) system which is no or less inventory system of process improvement. It implies supply of right things of right amount at right time in production process. It follows FIFO system or first-in, first-out to create a pull system in process. Here every sub process withdraw it needs from preceding sub process. In one sense mura elimination creates single piece flow in production process. It is another basic concept of Toyota Production System (TPS).
Muri is a Japanese word which means unreasonableness, impossible, too difficult, by force, compulsorily, excessiveness, immoderation. It is one of the basic concepts of Toyota Production System (TPS). It can be avoided through work standardization. Proper work flow, rational methods & takt time analysis is done to avoid muri. Due to ergonomic & safety consideration, standardization become logical, improve work quality & productivity as well as reduce cost.
- What do you know about takt time?
Answer: The average time between the start of production of one unit & the start of production of next unit, when these must set to match the rate of customer demand, is called takt time .In short, it is the reflection of rate of production needed to match the demand.
Where, T=Takt time
Ta=Net available time
Net available time is the time available for work completion including break time, maintenance, loss time, brainstorming etc.
- What is the difference between LT, TAT & CT?
Answer: LT or lead time is the time interval between order placement to order requirement fulfilment. It is a defined time interval by supplier or service provider or buyer or customer.
TAT or turnaround time is the time interval between a job start and output deliver as per predefined time.
CT is the time interval between starting of a job & completion of the job.
LT= order place time→ process startup time→process start→Process→Process end→Order delivery time
TAT= process startup time→process start→Process→Process end→Order delivery time
CT= process start→Process→Process end
- What do you understand by Gemba?
Answer: Gemba or Genba is a Japanese term which means the actual place. This actual place refers production floor in Toyota Production System concept. In lean manufacturing system, it is a sudden visit process at production floor to identify the real scenario. Best improvement comes from real scenario. The team leader can see the real condition, do communicate, as reason with politeness. It also creates a trust & transparency between lower level & management. It helps to identify wasteful activities & helps not to make any superficial decision. The Gemba walk is a daily work to do by lean leader with or without the team & practical improvement of mess situations. For example, morning time Gemba walk helps production leader to find about line work in process, input crisis, quality issues etc. and he can give suggestion or take step as per real scenario.
- What do you understand by Toyota Production System, Heijunka & Jidoka?
Answer: It is an socio-technical integrated system by Toyota. It is actually the concept of JIT or just in time production to reduce process time, production time & response time. The main objective is to avoid muri, mura & muda. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing is a production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus or in advance of need. In short, TPS is major precursor of Lean Manufacturing. Founded on the conceptual pillars of Just in time manufacturing, lean, kaizen, jidoka and preventative maintenance.
Heijunka is a Japanese term called smoothing or leveling production or demand. It is process to reduce mura or unevenness which basically reduce muda or waste. It helps to improve productivity & efficiency. The main focus is to produce or supply intermediate goods at a constant rate so that process, production or assembly can carry with a constant & predictable rate.
Jidoka is a Japanese term called intelligent automation or human touch automation. It is not about production function; it is supervisory function. In TPS, it means a quality control process by following four steps.
- Detect abnormality: Machine or operator detects a defect or deviation from normal situation.
- Stop: Line is stopped either automatically or by the operator and a signal is given to team leader.
- Fix immediate condition: The deviation is inspected and the condition is fixed immediately.
- Investigate root cause & install counter measure: Once the line is up, root cause of the deviation is investigated and relevant measures are installed to curb future problems.
Its goal is to prevent quality issues, overproduction elimination & problem findings with permanent solutions.
- What do you understand by 5D?
Answer: Absence of 5S in production floor results 5 devils or 5D. They are:
- 4D-Dangerous (Unsafe) workplace
- 5D-Demoralized employees
All 5D results in dissatisfied customer & decrease profit.
Source : onlinegarmentsacademy